Porbeagle Sharks
Cretolamna appendiculata lata (Agassiz)
Archaeolamna kopingensis (Davis)
Cretodus borodini (Cappetta & Case)
Description: Three different species of porbeagle shark, also known as the mackerel shark, occur at this locality.

Cretolamna appendiculata lata teeth possess several characteristics that distinguish it from other species.  Their teeth have very
broad, robust roots that are almost rectangular in shape and perpendicular to the main cusp.  The root is also compressed and,
when viewed from the side, is lacking a prominent medial protrusion.  The triangular and smooth main cusps are accompanied by
two large stocky and triangular shaped cusplets.  The lateral and posterior teeth are similar to the anterior teeth except the main
cusp is reduced with a slight curve towards the back of the jaw.  Their teeth are usually 1 to 2 cm (about .5 to .75 in) long.

The root lobes of
Archaeolamna kopingensis are more arched and pointed than that of Cretolamna.  Also the medial
protrusion is somewhat more prominent on these more rounded teeth.  The main cusp is more pointed and less triangular than
Cretolamna.   The main cusps of anterior teeth are straight becoming more curved and smaller to the posterior of the jaw.  The
cusplets are more slender and in some teeth, may posses a smaller secondary set of cusplets.  These teeth, like most porbeagle
teeth, are smooth and lacking any substantive longituial striations.  The teeth of
A. kopingensis are usually 1 to 2 cm (about .5 to
.75 in) long.

The presence of the other species of porbeagle,
C. borodini, at Big Brook is reported from only a few sources, but the
evedence would sugest that the idendification is correct.  They are similar to that of
A. kopingensis but the features are more
pronounced.  The root is highly curved and comprises little more than half the total length of the tooth.  The medial protrusion is
very porminent and has the characteristic pin sized nutrient foramen.  The main cusp is more slender, slightly curved lingually and
unlike other porbeagles, posses very fine plications of ruffles on the labial side of the main cusp along the root margin.  The
cusplets of this species are more slender, divergent, and can be unattached from the main cusp.  The size of these teeth are the
main difference with .5 to 1.3 cm (about .25 to .5 in) being the norm.

Commonality: The teeth of the porbeagle shark are very common at Big Brook except C. borodini, which is uncommon.

Similar fossils: The only confusion in the identification of the porbeagles would seem to be within the porbeagles themselves,
but occasionally, a
A. kopingensis tooth can be confused with a posterior goblin tooth.  Attention to a few characteristics should
clear up any problems.  Goblin teeth have a deep nutrient groove on the medial portion of the root, unlike the porbeagle that only
has a pin sized nutrient foramen and lacks a nutrient groove.  Teeth of the goblin are generally larger.

Size: Both C. appendiculata and A. kopingensis ranged about 2 to 3 meters (About 7 to 10 ft) in length, while C. borodini was
only 1 to 2 meters (about 3 to 7 ft) in length.

Notes: Interstingly, C. appendiculata is the oldest reported shark in the Late Cretaceous sediments of New Jersey.  An
Amateur paleontologist found a cast of a tooth in the upper part of the Rarities formation, the first marine transgression of the
C. appendiculata is also believed to be the ancestor of the great white lineage of sharks.

Modern porbeagles are open water sharks that feed on small to medium sized fish and squid.  Their bodies are somewhat stocky
in appearance and resemble their close cousins, the makos and the great whites.  The lamnoid group of sharks was widespread
worldwide during the Cretaceous and their descendents are still alive today.
Cretolamna appendiculata lata
Anterior Tooth
Lateral Teeth
a. Lingual   b. Labial
Posterior Tooth
Archaeolamna kopingensis
Anterior Tooth
Lateral Teeth
a. Labial   b. Lingual
Posterior Tooth
Lateral Tooth
Doubble set of cusplets
Cretodus borodini (Cappetta & Case)
Anterior Teeth
a. Labial   b. Lingual
Lateral Tooth
Posterior Tooth
a. Lateral Tooth   b. Anterior Tooth
Lateral Tooth